The skin is the largest organ in the body and serves as a protective barrier against environmental insults. When the skin is damaged, procedure controlled or otherwise, the wound healing process is initiated to repair the damaged tissue and restore the integrity of the skin.
The wound healing model in skin can be divided into three phases:
- Proliferation, and
In the inflammation phase, damaged skin cells release cytokines and chemokines, which attract immune cells to the site of the wound. These immune cells, including neutrophils and macrophages, phagocytose debris and release growth factors and cytokines that stimulate the proliferation of other cells involved in wound healing.
In the proliferation phase, fibroblasts, which are specialised cells that produce collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins, migrate to the site of the wound and begin to proliferate. Endothelial cells also migrate to the wound site and form new blood vessels, which supply the wound with oxygen and nutrients. Keratinocytes, which are the main cells of the epidermis, migrate from the wound edges and begin to divide and differentiate to form a new epidermal layer.
In the remodelling phase, the newly formed tissue undergoes remodelling and maturation. Collagen fibres reorganise and mature, and the wound contracts, leading to a decrease in wound size. The new tissue gains strength and functionality, and the scar tissue becomes less visible over time.
The wound healing process in skin is influenced by a variety of factors, including age, nutrition, and underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and autoimmune disorders. In some cases, the wound healing process may be impaired, leading to chronic wounds that fail to heal.
The wound healing model in skin is a complex process that involves multiple cellular and molecular pathways. Understanding the different phases of wound healing and the factors that can influence the process is crucial for developing effective treatments for skin wounds and preventing chronic wound formation.
After your clinical procedure, your practitioner will give you precise instructions for wound care at home. It is important to follow these instructions closely in order to promote proper healing and minimize any potential scarring.